Facts on HIV

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

HIV and AIDS are two different things.

HIV - refers to the VIRUS that destroys the human body's natural defense (immune system) against any disease infection.

AIDS - refers to the STATE or CONDITION when the body manifests signs & symptoms of any disease because its immune system has been made deficient or destroyed by HIV.

You can never tell if someone has HIV simply by the way he/she looks, feels or acts.

People infected with HIV usually look and feel healthy and may not know
that they had been infected for many years.

Stages of the HIV Disease

Stage I: PRIMARY INFECTION

o The patient starts experiencing “flu-like” symptoms

Stage II: ASYMPTOMATIC ILLNESS

o The patient may remain well for years

Stage III: SYMPTOMATIC ILLNESS

o The patient experiences “mild” symptoms such as lack of energy, night sweats, etc

Stage IV: ADVANCED DISEASES (AIDS)

Just to summarize, following are the main HIV symptoms:

+Rapid weight loss

+Dry cough

+Recurring fever or profuse night sweats

+Profound and unexplained fatigue

+Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck

+Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week

+White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat

+Pneumonia

+Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids

+Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders

The person's HIV status can only be determined through the HIV

ANTIBODY TESTING.

HIV is a very fragile type of virus that can never thrive outside the body.

But inside a human body, conditions are perfect for the virus to survive and multiply.

THREE MODES OF TRANSMISSION:

1. BLOOD TRANSMISSION - 90-98 %

a. Blood Transfusion
b. Organ Transplant
c. Sharing Used Needles
d. Needle Pricks (injecting needles)

2. SEXUAL TRANSMISSION - Unprotected Sex with Multiple Partners - 1-98% depending on:

a. Frequency (sometimes, often, always)
b. Manner (Anal, Vaginal, Oral)

3. MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION 15-30 %

a. During Pregnancy - 15%
b. Process of Delivery - 20%
c. Through Breastfeeding - 30%

FOUR BODY FLUIDS CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING THE HIV VIRUS:

1. BLOOD
2. BREAST MILK
3. VAGINAL FLUID
4. SEMINAL FLUID

You can't be infected thru SALIVA, TEARS, PERSPIRATION, URINE, STOOLS, etc..

HIV can't be transmitted though CASUAL SOCIAL CONTACT.

There is no reason why we should fear and discriminate PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV (PLHIV).

They have the right to live and are productive members of society if accepted and given due care and support.

IT'S NOT WHO YOU ARE, BUT WHAT YOU DO THAT MAKES YOU VULNERABLE TO HIV. BE RESPONSIBLE GET TESTED WHEN IN DOUBT.

WAYS TO PREVENT AND CONTROL HIV INFECTION

A-abstinence
B-be mutually faithful
C-correct and consistent use of condom
D-no to drugs and alcohol
E-proper education

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that causes the disease AIDS. Herein, the entire immune system of the patient starts degenerating and the victim falls prey to various opportunistic infections that a healthy body can usually resist. The HIV, falls under the lentivirus group. That is, it replicates very slowly, and takes time to get ripened to cause any chronic diseases.

In order to fight the HIV virus, our body produces some protein substances, designed to resist these HIV virus and hinder its replication. These protein substances produced by our body, are called HIV antibodies. These are substances that favor our immunity system and strive to save us from HIV. HIV antibodies are produced by our white blood cells (WBC), when they come in contact with HIV. Presence of HIV antibodies actually determines the possibilities of HIV virus in our body.

These antibodies are not pre-existing substances. They are formed in reaction to the presence of HIV virus in our body, thereby warning us that our body is in danger.

HIV antibodies are not detected as soon as the person contracts the disease. It takes a few weeks or even a couple of months, for the antibodies to be formed in plenty. In most cases, the average period of its formation is two weeks. However, they are not detected immediately after the contraction of the disease. Therefore, the test should be conducted frequently, within a span of three months, till HIV antibodies are actually found.

HIV antibodies exist it the patient's blood, urine and oral fluid. Presence of HIV antibodies in urine does not mean that HIV can be contracted by sharing the toilet. They are only the antibodies and not the HIV virus. One should also, not confuse oral fluid with saliva. HIV antibodies are not found in saliva, but in the mucosal secretion of the patient's gums.

HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection

HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similarities including their basic gene arrangement, modes of transmission, intracellular replication pathways and clinical consequences: both result in AIDS. However, HIV-2 is characterised by lower transmissibility and reduced likelihood of progression to AIDS. The underlying mechanistic differences between these two infections illuminate broader issues of retroviral pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. Comparisons between these two infections from epidemiological, clinical, virologic and immunologic viewpoints provide a basis for hypothesis generation and testing in this 'natural experiment' in viral pathogenesis. In terms of epidemiology, HIV-2 remains largely confined to West Africa, whereas HIV-1 extends worldwide. Clinically, HIV-2 infected individuals seem to dichotomise, most remaining long-term non-progressors, whereas most HIV-1 infected individuals progress. When clinical progression occurs, both diseases demonstrate very similar pathological processes, although progression in HIV-2 occurs at higher CD4 counts. Plasma viral loads are consistently lower in HIV-2, as are average levels of immune activation. Significant differences exist between the two infections in all components of the immune system. For example, cellular responses to HIV-2 tend to be more polyfunctional and produce more IL-2; humoral responses appear broader with lower magnitude intratype neutralisation responses; innate responses appear more robust, possibly through differential effects of tripartite motif protein isoform 5 alpha. Overall, the immune response to HIV-2 appears more protective against disease progression suggesting that pivotal immune factors limit viral pathology. If such immune responses could be replicated or induced in HIV-1 infected patients, they might extend survival and reduce requirements for antiretroviral therapy.

Four Principles of HIV & STI transmission
The four principles of HIV transmission can help providers and patients assess the level of risk of different sexual practices for HIV infection. In order for HIV transmission to occur, all four principles of HIV transmission are needed.

EXIT –the virus must exit the body infected person

SURVIVE –the virus must be in conditions in which it can survive

SUFFICIENT –there must be sufficient
quantities of the virus present to cause
infection

ENTER –the virus must enter the bloodstream

CD 4 Cells

CD4 Cells have GlycoprotienCD 4 molecules on their surface, to react and respond to any harmful external microorganism, like bacteria and virus. These CD4 Cells act as the host cells for the replication of the HIV virus. HIV virus, being a retrovirus, requires cells from the patient's body, to replicate. It otherwise, cannot replicate on its own. When the HIV virus attacks our body, it infects the CD 4 Cells, thereby deteriorating our immunity system, as these cells are the seat of human immunity. The more the CD 4 Cells are attacked, the worse our immunity system gets. It makes the patient more vulnerable to those diseases, which can be easily resisted when the CD4 count is high.
The more the CD4 Cells, the better the person's immunity. The extent of HIV invasion on our body and the degradation in our immunity system can be measured by counting the number of CD4 Cells in per cubic millimeter of our blood. In a healthy adult, it can vary from 600 to 1200 CD4 count in per cubic millimeter. If the number of active CD 4 cells fall below 400, medical aid must be sought.

In a HIV+ person, if the CD4 count varies between 300 to 500, then he is in a very good condition. However, if the count goes below 200, then the patient is likely to be more vulnerable to opportunistic infections and is on a path of fatal consequences. In this case, only prophylactic antibiotics can come to some meager help.

Purpose of CD 4 count:

Helps to detect the level of HIV infection and AIDS in the body
It gives an idea about when to start antiretroviral treatment
Analyze our vulnerability of other infections, reading the CD4 count

Functions of CD4 Cells:

It activates the T cells, after reacting with antigen presenting cells.
It helps in secreting an enzyme called Tyrosine Kinase Lck, which helps in the activation of several molecules that are good for our immunity system
How can CD4 cells be counted?
The safest way to count CD4 cells is by undergoing a normal blood test and reading the CD 4 count from the sample of blood.
The CD4 cells are very complex Glycoprotien, which works in a very complicated way at a microscopic level to sustain our immunity system and to destroy the HIV and other harmful foreign viruses. However, these cells are an important part of blood, as they help us in fighting external harmful micro- organisms. Its count should always be maintained above 1200, or one might fall prey to several diseases. In case the person has contracted HIV, he should immediately consult the doctor and count the number of CD 4 cells in his blood. In case it is on a fall, then he should resort to prophylactic antibiotics, to retain its count.

HIV TESTING

HIV Antibody testing is a blood test that will tell us whether a person is infected with HIV. However, it does not directly identify the virus but it measures the antibody produced by the body to fight it.
It takes 3 to 6 MONTHS for HIV Antibody to be detected in the blood. This is called the WINDOW PERIOD. A person may transmit HIV during this WINDOW PERIOD without him/her knowing it.
Ideally a person should get tested 6months after the last unprotected sex or any risky situation that might get you infected with the virus.

THERE IS NO CURE FOR HIV BUT IT'S MANAGEABLE IF YOU GOT DIAGNOSED AT AN EARLY STAGE.

WHAT IS HIV ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG TREATMENT?

This is the main type of treatment for HIV or AIDS. It is not a cure, but it can stop people from becoming ill for many years. The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person’s life.
The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused already.
The drugs are often referred to as: antiretrovirals, ARVs, anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs.

WHAT IS COMBINATION THERAPY?

Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination therapy. Taking a combination of three or more anti-HIV drugs is sometimes referred to as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).
If only one drug was taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it and the drug would stop working. Taking two or more antiretrovirals at the same time vastly reduces the rate at which resistance would develop, making treatment more effective in the long term. Our starting, monitoring and switching HIV treatment page has more about drug resistance.
What does combination therapy usually consist of?
The leading recommendations for antiretroviral treatment were published by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2013. 1 For adults and adolescents, they recommend starting on a first line therapy of two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The favoured recommendation is a fixed-dose combination (just one pill) of:

• TDF - Tenofovir
• 3TC - Lamivudine or FTC - Emtricitabine
• EFV - Efavirenz

Speak to your health care provider about the most suitable available option for you. See our Treatment for Children page for specific recommendations for children.

The choice of drugs to take can depend on a number of factors, including the availability and price of drugs, the number of pills, the side effects of the drugs, the laboratory monitoring requirements and whether there are co-blister packs or fixed dose combinations available. Most people living with HIV in the developing world still have very limited access to antiretroviral treatment and often only receive treatment for the diseases that occur as a result of a weakened immune system. Such treatment has only short-term benefits because it does not address the underlying immune deficiency itself.

FIRST AND SECONDARY LINE THERAPY

At the beginning of treatment, the combination of drugs that a person is given is called first line therapy. If after a while HIV becomes resistant to this combination, or if side effects are particularly bad, then a change to second line therapy is usually recommended.
Second line therapy recommendations by WHO suggest two NRTIs and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI).

HOPE FOR Person/People Living with HIV - Anti Retro Viral Drugs

Although they cannot totally eradicate HIV. ARV's have dramatically reduced deaths and illnesses, prolonged lives, and improved the quality of life of many Person/People Living with HIV. ARV's are now available for FREE. If you are not sure of your HIV status, submit yourself for HIV Antibody Test now. Don't be afraid Early Detection makes a lot of difference. Many support groups are waiting for you.

ONCE YOU DON'T HAVE HIV, YOU'LL NEVER HAVE IT IF YOU TAKE PRECAUTION.

R.A. 8504 (Philippine AIDS Law) states, it is unlawful to discriminate Person/People Living with HIV. It's punishable by law (you can be penalized and imprisoned).

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List of Social Hygiene Clinics

LUZON

Philippine General Hospital
Dr. Jodor Lim-Physician
Sagip unit, 2nd fl, ER complex, UPPGH, taft avenue
(02) 554-8400

Angeles Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Lucielle Ayuyao - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
1-20 Cristina Drive, Villa Teresa Subd., Angeles City
(045) 3222979 / (0915) 987-2100

Jose B. Lingad Memorial Medical Center
Address: MacArthur Hwy., San Fernando,
Balibago Social Hygiene Clinic
20, Cristina Avenue, Villa Teresa Subdivision,
Angeles, Pampanga

Antipolo City Health Office.
M. Santos Street, Sitio Mulawin,
Barangay San Roque, Antipolo City
Please contact, 697 0362 and 696 4097

Bicol Regional Training & Teaching Hospital
Address: Rizal Street, Legazpi City
Phone: (52) 483 0636

Caloocan Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Zenaida Calupaz - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Mabini St. Calocan Health Dept.
2888811 loc. 2281 / (0917) 601-8331

Laoag Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Imelda Tamayo - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Brgy. 10, City Health Office, Tupaz, Laoag City
(077) 7720289 / (0918) 979-7491

Makati City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Calixto Salud - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
JP Rizal St. Brgy. Poblacion, Makati City
8701615

Mandaluyong City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Yolanda Tuaño - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Maysilo Circle, Mandaluyong City
5467799; 2115336 / (0917) 842-4298

Parañaque Social Hygiene Clinic
Located at Parañaque City Hall,
Look for Christian - 09179078319

Las Piñas (Daniel Fajardo) Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Janeth Villania-Physician
Barrio Hall, Alabang Zapate Road, Almansa
(02) 800-6406 / (02) 873-9145

Manila Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Diane Mendoza -Clinic Physician
San Lazaro, Sta. Cruz, Manila
7116942 / (0920) 577-9074

Marikina City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Honielyn Fernando - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Marikina City
(0917) 829-8862

Pasay Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Loretta Garcia - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Pasay City Health Office
5514180 / (0922) 891-5674

Pasig City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Rocylene Roque - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Caruncho Avene. Brgy. San Nicolas, Pasig City
6400111

Puerto Galera Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Ginalyn Caguete - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Rural Health Clinic, Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro
(043) 4420182 / (0927) 238-3989

Puerto Princesa Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Eunice Herrera - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
City Health Office, Puerto Princesa, Palawan
(043) 4658182 / 09272383989

Klinika Novaliches
AJ Maximo Health Center
Quirino Highway
Novaliches, QC
Mon. to Fri. 3pm-11pm

Batasan Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Dottie Mercado - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Batasan Hills, Quezon City
(0905) 357-6353

Bernardo Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Suzette Encisa - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Bernardo Clinic, Quezon City
(0916) 478-1607

Project 7 Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Monina Santos - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Project 7 , Quezon City
(0918) 618-4133

Saint Camillus Medical Center
Dr. Carla Aurora Ortiz-Physician
116 Amang Rodriguez Ave., Santolan,
02) 645 3741 / (02) 682-0366 (FAX)

Dagupan City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Jocelyn Tongson-Physician
Dagupan City,

Pangasinan Provincial Hospital
Dr. Juan B. Cabuang-Physician
Bolingit, San Carlos City,
(075) 532-2603

Candon Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Narciso Ramos-Physician
Candon City, Ilocos

Santiago Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Robelyn Vera Go - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
City Health Office, San Andres, Santiago City
(078) 6827687 / (0919) 462-6389

Jose Reyes Memorial Medical Center (JRMMC)
Dr. Christine Villaroman
Quiricada St. Sta. Cruz, Manlia
(0922) 824-5216

MEDI - Jose Reyes Memorial Medical Center
Dr. Ma. Luisa M. Date
Bldg. 14, DOH Compound Sta. Cruz, Manila
7438301 loc. 1702

Tuguegarao Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Josefina Chua - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
City Health Office, Tugegarao City
(078) 8462197 / (0917) 574-5050
Laguna Social Hygienic Clinic
Josefina Delas Arnas

Laguna Provincial Hospital/ Sta. Cruz Hygienic Clinic
(049) 5001986

San Pablo City Social Hygienic Clinic
Dr. Mercydina Mendoza-Caponpon (Physician)
San Pablo City, Laguna
0935-562116

Imus City Imus Wellness & Reproductive Center
(Velarde Health Center)
Dr. Ferdinand P. Mina
HIV/AIDS Coordinator -
Medicion I-C Imus Cavite
(046) 4344057
Sched: M-F 2:00pm-4:00pm

Dasmarinas City, CITY HEALTH OFFICE 2
DBBE Dasmarinas City, Cavite,
Monday to Friday at 8 am to 5 pm
Pls. coordinate first to Fr. Regen Reyes Luna (Bahaghari Advocacy Group)
for the availability of Medtech.

VISAYAS

Corazon Locsin Montelibano Memorial Regional Hospital
Address: Lacson St., Bacolod City
Phone: (34) 433 1591

Cebu City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Ilya Tac –an - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Gen. Maxilano St. Cebu City
(022) 3659962 / (0917) 329-1663

Iloilo Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Odetta Villaruel - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Iloilo City
(033) 3208151 / (0921) 569-4450

Lapu-Lapu Ciy Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Rodolfo C. Berame - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Mandaue City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Edna Seno and Dr. Debra Maria Catulong - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician

Gov. Celestino Gallares Memorial Medical Center
Address: M. Parras St., Tagbilaran City
Phone: (38) 411 3181 | (38) 411 3181 to 85

Mandaue Wellness Center, City Health Office
Address: Barangay Centro, Mandaue City
Phone: (32) 346 0110

MINDANAO

SOCIAL HYGIENE CLINIC IN AGUSAN DEL NORTE 085 342 3432
Services : medical
Address : City Health Office, Jose Rosales Avenue, Butuan City, 8600, Agusan Del Norte
City/Area : Agusan Del Norte
State :
Category : Healthcare
Phone: (085) 342 3432

Butuan Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Jesus Chin- Chui - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
City Health Office, Butuan City
(085) 3423432; 815111 loc. 1039

Cagayan De Oro Social Hygiene Clinic, City Health Office
Address: BSP Building, City Health Street, Cagayan de Oro
Phone: (8822) 721 189

Davao City Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Jordana Ramitere - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
City Health Office, Magallanes St. Davao City
(222) 4187 / (0920) 910-2718

Davao Regional Hospital
Ms. Telesfora A Hinay
Apokon, Tagum City
(082) 2218593; 2279536; 4003653

General Santos Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr. Mely Lastimoso - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
General Santos City Hospital
(083) 3051510 / (0908) 887-7512; (0919) 848-3116

Zamboanga Social Hygiene Clinic
Dr Kibtiya Uddin - Social Hygiene Clinic Physician
Petit Barracks, Zone 4C, Cty Health Office, Zamboanga City
(0927) 483-6672

"Being there for someone can bring hope when all seems hopeless."

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